Over 100 scientific papers published
Good For Your Heart
Your cardiovascular system is a crucial part of your health, and it involves much more than just your heart. The miles of blood vessels are critical to your heart health. When your arteries are flexible, they are able to enable the smooth, easy flow of blood, head-to-toe, helping you stay healthy, from the inside!
Davison, K., et al. Effect of cocoa flavanols and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond), 2008. 32(8): p. 1289-96.
Sansone, R., et al. Methylxanthines enhance the effects of cocoa flavanols on cardiovascular function: randomized, double-masked controlled studies. Am J Clin Nutr, 2017. 105(2): p. 352-360.
Sansone, R., et al. Cocoa flavanol intake improves endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in healthy men and women: a randomised, controlled, double-masked trial: the Flaviola Health Study. Br J Nutr, 2015. 114(8): p. 1246-55.
Fisher, N.D., et al. Flavanol-rich cocoa induces nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilation in healthy humans. J Hypertens, 2003. 21(12): p. 2281-6
Heiss, C., et al. Acute consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2005. 46(7): p. 1276-83.
Fisher, N.D. and N.K. Hollenberg Aging and vascular responses to flavanol-rich cocoa. J Hypertens, 2006.24(8): p. 1575-80
Schroeter, H., et al. (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006. 103(4): p. 1024-9.
Heiss, C., et al. Sustained increase in flow-mediated dilation after daily intake of high-flavanol cocoa drink over 1 week. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 2007. 49(2): p. 74-80.
Berry, N.M., et al. Impact of cocoa flavanol consumption on blood pressure responsiveness to exercise. Br J Nutr, 2010. 103(10): p. 1480-4.
Davison, K., et al. Dose-related effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on blood pressure. J Hum Hypertens, 2010. 24(9): p. 568-76.
Heiss, C., et al. Impact of cocoa flavanol intake on age-dependent vascular stiffness in healthy men: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial. Age (Dordr), 2015. 37(3): p. 9794.
Rodriguez-Mateos, A., et al. Assessing the respective contributions of dietary flavanol monomers and procyanidins in mediating cardiovascular effects in humans: Randomized-controlled, double-masked intervention trial.AJCN, 2018.
Good for Your Brain
That’s why your brain depends on the constant replenishment of oxygen and nutrients in order to perform at its best. When your cardiovascular system is functioning at its peak, the function and performance of your brain are supported.
Brickman, A.M., et al. Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults. Nat Neurosci, 2014. 17(12): p. 1798-803.
Scholey, A.B., et al. Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in acute improvements in mood and cognitive performance during sustained mental effort. J Psychopharmacol, 2010. 24(10): p. 1505-14.
Mastroiacovo, D., et al. Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study--a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 2015. 101(3): p. 538-48.
Francis, S.T., et al. The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 2006. 47 Suppl 2: p. S215-20.
Sorond, F.A., et al. Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2008. 4(2): p. 433-40.
Desideri, G., et al. Benefits in Cognitive Function, Blood Pressure, and Insulin Resistance Through Cocoa Flavanol Consumption in Elderly Subjects With Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study. Hypertension, 2012. 60(3): p. 794-801.
Good for Your Whole Body
Mars, Inc. has been studying cocoa flavanols for over 20 years. Over this time, numerous scientific studies have been published on how the body absorbs and transforms these flavanols, their safety, as well as how cocoa flavanols can work to help keep your whole body healthy — from the surface of your skin to the microbes in your gut.
Heinrich, U., et al. Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women. J Nutr, 2006. 136(6): p. 1565-9.
Neukam, K., et al. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely increases microcirculation in human skin. Eur J Nutr, 2007. 46(1): p. 53-6.
Holt, R.R., et al. Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4beta-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa. Am J Clin Nutr, 2002. 76(4): p. 798-804.
Rios, L.Y., et al. Cocoa procyanidins are stable during gastric transit in humans. Am J Clin Nutr, 2002. 76(5): p. 1106-10.
Schramm, D.D., et al. Food effects on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavanols. Life Sci, 2003. 73(7): p. 857-69.
Ottaviani, J.I., et al. The stereochemical configuration of flavanols influences the level and metabolism of flavanols in humans and their biological activity in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med, 2011. 50(2): p. 237-44.
Tzounis, X., et al. Prebiotic evaluation of cocoa-derived flavanols in healthy humans by using a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr, 2011. 93(1): p. 62-72.
Ottaviani, J.I., et al. Intake of dietary procyanidins does not contribute to the pool of circulating flavanols in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2012. 95(4): p. 851-858.
Ottaviani, J.I., et al. Structurally related (-)-epicatechin metabolites in humans: assessment using de novo chemically synthesized authentic standards. Free Radic Biol Med, 2012. 52(8): p. 1403-12.
Rodriguez-Mateos, A., et al. Influence of sugar type on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanols. Br J Nutr, 2012: p. 1-8.
Ottaviani, J.I., et al. Safety and efficacy of cocoa flavanol intake in healthy adults: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 2015. 102(6): p. 1425-35.
Ottaviani, J.I., et al.The metabolome of [2-(14)C](-)-epicatechin in humans: implications for the assessment of efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of action of polyphenolic bioactives. Sci Rep, 2016. 6: p. 29034.
Ottaviani, J.I., et al. Evaluation at scale of microbiome-derived metabolites as biomarker of flavan-3-ol intake in epidemiological studies. Sci Rep, 2018. 8(1): p. 9859.